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Thursday, 6 April 2017

F-35 Lighting II

                     F-35 Lighting II

Introduction :

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a 5th Generation single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters .

🔵Role : Multirole Fighter 
🔵Origin : United States 
🔵Manufacturer : Lockheed Martin 
🔵Introduction : F-35B (2016),  F-35A (2015)
🔵Produced : In America 
🔵Quantity : 200
🔵Unit Cost : US$ 90 Million To  Million 

F-35 Specifications :

⭕Crew : 1 
⭕Length : 15 m
⭕Wingspan : 11 m
⭕Height : 4 m
⭕Wing Area : 43 m²
⭕Empty Weight : 13,200 kg
⭕Max Takeoff Weight : 32,200 kg
⭕Fuel Capacity : 8,382 kg

Operators :

The operators of F-35 Lightning II are United States, Australia, Denmark, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Turkey Currently. 

Production :

The F-35 descends from the X-35 , the winning design of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. An aerospace industry team led by Lockheed Martin designed and manufactures it. Other major F-35 industry partners include Northrop Grumman, Pratt & Whitney and BAE Systems . The F-35 first flew on 15 December 2006. The United States plans to buy 2,457 aircraft. Its variants are to provide the bulk of the crewed tactical airpower of the U.S. Air Force , Navy and the Marine Corps over the coming decades. Deliveries of the F-35 for the U.S. military are scheduled until 2037 with a projected service life up to 2070. The United States principally funds the F-35 JSF development, with additional funding from partners. The partner nations are either NATO members or close U.S. allies. The United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Turkey are part of the active development program; several additional countries have ordered, or are considering ordering, the F-35.The program is the most expensive military weapons system in history, and has been much criticized inside and outside government, in the U.S. and in allied countries. Critics argue that the plane is "plagued with design flaws," with many blaming the procurement process in which Lockheed was allowed "to design, test, and produce the F-35 all at the same time, instead of… [identifying and fixing] defects before firing up its production line." By 2014, the program was "$163 billion over budget and seven years behind scheduleThe JSF development contract was signed on 16 November 1996, and the contract for System Development and Demonstration (SDD) was awarded by the Department of Defense (DoD) on 26 October 2001 to Lockheed Martin, whose X-35 beat the Boeing X-32 . Although both aircraft met or exceeded requirements, the X-35 design was considered to have less risk and more growth potential.Based on wind tunnel testing, Lockheed Martin slightly enlarged its X-35 design into the F-35. The forward fuselage is 5 inches longer to make room for avionics. Correspondingly, the horizontal stabilators were moved 2 inches rearward to retain balance and control. The top surface of the fuselage was raised by 1 inch along the center line. Also, it was decided to increase the size of the F-35B STOVL variant's weapons bay to be common with the other two variants.  Manufacturing of parts for the first F-35 prototype airframe began in November 2003. Because the X-35 did not have weapons bays, their addition in the F-35 would cause design changes which would lead to later weight problems.The F-35B STOVL variant was in danger of missing performance requirements in 2004 because it weighed too much; reportedly, by 1,000 kg or 8 percent. In response, Lockheed Martin added engine thrust and thinned airframe members; reduced the size of the common weapons bay and vertical stabilizers; re-routed some thrust from the roll-post outlets to the main nozzle; and redesigned the wing-mate joint, portions of the electrical system, and the portion of the aircraft immediately behind the cockpit. Many of the changes were applied to all three variants to maintain high levels of commonality. By September 2004, the weight reduction effort had reduced the aircraft's design weight by 1,200 kg, but the redesign cost $6.2 billion and delayed the project by 18 months.F-35 had many delays due to political, economic and international sophisticated problems but finaly it came into being after many improvements.In early 2015 the AF-2 F-35A, the primary flight sciences loads and flutter evaluation aircraft, was flown by Lockheed Martin F-35 site lead test pilot David "Doc" Nelson in air-to-air combat maneuvers against F-16s for the first time and, based on the results of these and earlier flight-envelope evaluations, said the aircraft can be cleared for greater agility as a growth option. AF-2 was the first F-35 to be flown to 9g+ and −3g, and to roll at design-load factor. Departure/spin resistance was also proven during high angle-of-attack (AOA) testing which eventually went as high as 110 deg. AOA. "When we did the first dogfight in January, they said, ‘you have no limits,’" says Nelson. "It was loads monitoring, so they could tell if we ever broke something. It was a confidence builder for the rest of the fleet because there is no real difference structurally between AF-2 and the rest of the airplanes." "Pilots really like maneuverability, and the fact that the aircraft recovers so well from a departure allows us to say [to the designers of the flight control system laws], ‘you don’t have to clamp down so tight,’" says Nelson.With the full flight envelope now opened to an altitude of 50,000 ft, speeds of Mach 1.6/700 KCAS and loads of 9 g, test pilots also say improvements to the flight control system have rendered the transonic roll-off (TRO) issue tactically irrelevant. Highlighted as a "program concern" in the Defense Department’s Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) 2014 report, initial flight tests showed that all three F-35 variants experienced some form of wing drop in high-speed turns associated with asymmetrical movements of shock waves. However, TRO "has evolved into a non-factor," says Nelson, who likens the effect to a momentary "tug" on one shoulder harness. "You have to pull high-g to even find it." The roll-off phenomena exhibits itself as "less than 10 deg./sec. for a fraction of a second. We have been looking for a task it affects and we can’t find one.In July 2015, Lockheed Martin confirmed the authenticity of a leaked report showing the F-35 to be less maneuverable than an older F-16D with wing tanks.The pilot who flew the mission reported inferior energy , a limited pitch rate and flying qualities that were "not intuitive or favorable" in a major part of the air-combat regime gave the F-16 the tactical advantage. In general the high AoA capabilities of the jet could not be used in an effective way without significantly reducing follow-on maneuvering potential. In an interview with CBC Radio broadcast 2 July 2015, military journalist David Axe claimed to have read the leaked report and stated: "Against a determined foe, the F-35 is in very big trouble."However, the F-35 used was a flight test aircraft with a restricted flight envelope and lacked some features present on the operational aircraft. The Pentagon, JPO, and defense analysts have defended the F-35's utility in spite of the report's assertion that it lacks maneuverability by saying it was designed primarily to disrupt the kill chain of advanced air defenses while the F-22 would handle close-in dogfighting, it has advanced sensor and information fusion capabilities to detect and engage enemy aircraft at long ranges before it can be seen and merged with, and that most air combat in recent decades has focused on sensors and weapons that achieved long-range kills rather than close combat.

Versions :

The F-35A is the conventional takeoff and landing variant intended for the U.S. Air Force and other air forces. It is the smallest, lightest F-35 version and is the only variant equipped with an internal cannon, the GAU-22/A. This 25 mm cannon is a development of the GAU-12 carried by the AV-8B Harrier II. It is designed for increased effectiveness against ground targets compared to the 20 mm M61 VULCAN cannon carried by other USAF fightersThe F-35A is expected to match the F-16 in maneuverability and instantaneous high-g performance, and outperform it in stealth, payload, range on internal fuel, avionics, operational effectiveness, supportability, and survivability.It is expected to match an F-16 that is carrying the usual external fuel tank in acceleration performance.The A variant is primarily intended to replace the F-16. At one point it was also intended to replace A-10 Thunderbolt II starting in 2028. The F-35A can be outfitted to receive fuel via either of the two main aerial refueling methods; this was a consideration in the Canadian procurement and a deciding factor for the Japanese purchase. On 18 December 2013, the Netherlands became the second partner country to operate the F-35A, when Maj. Laurens J.W. Vijge of the Royal Netherlands Air Force  took off from Eglin Air Force Base.On 27 January 2014, General Mike Hostage,  head of Air Combat Command , stated he would fight "to the death" to not have a single plane of the USAF's planned 1,763 F-35 purchase be cut, because the allies and partners of the US got "weak in the knees" when seeing the USAF "back away" from the F-35. He said the F-15 and F-16 fleets would become tactically obsolete in the middle of the next decade regardless of improvements. Hostage also commented that the F-35 would be "irrelevant" without the F-22 fleet being viable as the F-35 was not an air superiority fighter,and that an F-35 pilot who enters a dogfight has made a mistake.The F-35As for the Royal Norway Air Force  will have drag chute installed. Norway will be the first country to adopt the drag chute pod.On 2 August 2016, the U.S. Air Force declared the F-35A basic combat ready. F-35A is scheduled to be full combat ready in 2017 with its 3F software upgrade. Air Combat Command will initially deploy F-35A to Red Flaf exercises and as a "theater security package" to Europe and the Asia-Pacific. It will probably not be fighting the Islamic state in the Middle East earlier than 2017, but ACC commander General wouldn't mind deploying them earlier.

The F-35B is the short takeoff and vertical landing variant of the aircraft. Similar in size to the A variant, the B sacrifices about a third of the A variant's fuel volume to accommodate the vertical flight system . Vertical takeoffs and landings are riskier because of threats such as foreign object damage Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, General James Amos has said that, in spite of increasing costs and schedule delays, there is no plan B to the F-35B. The F-35B is larger than the aircraft it replaces, which required USS America to be designed without well deck capabilities.In 2011, the USMC and USN signed an agreement by which the USMC will purchase 340 F-35B and 80 F-35C fighters, while the USN will purchase 260 F-35Cs. The five squadrons of USMC F-35Cs will be assigned to Navy carriers; F-35Bs will be used on amphibious ships and ashore.

The F-35C carrier variant features larger wings  foldable wingtip sections, larger wing and tail control surfaces for improved low-speed control, stronger landing gear for the stresses of carrier arrested landings, a twin-wheel nose gear, and stronger tailhook for use with  arrestor cables. The larger wing area allows for decreased landing speed while increasing both range and payload.The United States Navy intends to buy 480 F-35Cs to replace the F/A-18A, B, C, and D Hornets and complement the Super Hornet fleet. On 27 June 2007, the F-35C completed its Air System Critical Design Review (CDR), allowing the production of the first two functional prototypes.The C variants expected to be available beginning in 2014.The first F-35C was rolled out on 29 July 2009.The United States Marine Corps will also purchase 80 F-35Cs, enough for five squadrons, for use with navy carrier air wings in a joint service agreement signed on 14 March 2011.


The Pratt & Whitney F135 powers the F-35. An alternative engine, the General Electric/Rolls-Royce, was being developed until it was cancelled by its manufacturers in December 2011 for lack of funding from the Pentagon.The F135 and F136 engines are not designed to super cruise.  However, the F-35 can briefly fly at Mach 1.2 for 150 miles.The F135 is the second (radar) stealthy afterburning jet engine. Like the Pratt & Whitney F1190  from which it was derived, the F135 has suffered afterburner pressure pulsations, or 'screech' at low altitude and high speed. The F-35 has a maximum speed of over Mach 1.6. With a maximum takeoff weight of 60,000 lb (27,000 kg),the Lightning II is considerably heavier than the lightweight fighters it replaces.The STOVL F-35B is outfitted Rolls-Royce Lift System , designed by Lockheed Martin and developed by Rolls-Royce. This system more resembles the German VJ 101D/Ethan the preceding STOVL Harrier Jump Jet and the Royal-Royce Pegasus engine.The Lift System is composed of a lift fan, drive shaft, two roll posts and a "Three Bearing Swivel Module" (3BSM). The 3BSM is a thrust verctoring nozzles  which allows the main engine exhaust to be deflected downward at the tail of the aircraft. The lift fan is near the front of the aircraft and provides a counterbalancing thrust using two counter-rotating blisks.It is powered by the engine's low-pressure (LP) turbine via a drive shaft and gearbox. Roll control during slow flight is achieved by diverting unheated by pass air through wing-mounted thrust nozzles called Roll Posts.

Saturday, 11 March 2017



Introduction :

Sukhoi 35 is a single-seat, twin-engine , multirole fighters and stealth jet fighter currently in use By Russian Air Force And People Liberation Air Force (China).

             🔵Role : MultiRole Fighter
             🔵 Origin : Russia 
             🔵 Manufacturer : Shukhoi
             🔵 Introduction : 2014
             🔵 Produced : In Soviet Union
             🔵Quantity : 58
             🔵 Unit Cost : US$ 50 Million

SU-35 Specifications :

            ⚫  Crew : 1 
            ⚫Length : 22 m
            ⚫ Windspan : 15 m
            ⚫Height : 6 m
            ⚫Wing Area : 62 m²
            ⚫Empty Weight : 18,400 kg
            ⚫Max Takeoff Mass :34,500kg
            ⚫Fuel Capacity: 11,500 kg
          Maximum speed:
     🔴At altitude: 2,780 km/h
     ⚪At sea level: 1,400 km/h
     🔴  At altitude: 3,600 km 
     ⚪ At sea level: 1,580 km

Operators :

The operators of Sukhoi-35 is currently Russian Air Force And People Liberation Air Force (China).

Production :

In 1980s, Su-27 entered service with the Soviet Air Forces. On the mean time Sukhoi looked to develop a follow-on variant. Originally designated "Su-27M", it would be much more better and powerful .It had improved air to ground weaponary capabilities.Aluminium-lithium alloys were used to reduce weight and boost internal fuel volume.The aircraft was fitted with Turbofan engine which is much more powerful ,bigger and reliable .Range was increased to 4,000 km.The Su-27M prototype first flew on 28 June 1988 piloted by Sukhoi chief test.Two more prototypes were made designated as T-10M1 and T10-M2. The third prototype, T10M-3, appeared at the Dubai Airshow in 1993, by which time Sukhoi had re-designated its fighter the "Su-35".In total, 15 airworthy Su-35s  were produced, including an Su-35UB two-seat prototype, along with two static test prototypes. The Su-35UB,made its first flight on 7 August 2000. It was demonstrated to South Korea during that country's F-X replacement fighter tender.
Design work on SU-35 had been completed by 2007.On 19 February, Sukhoi test pilot took the aircraft aloft for its first flight from Zhukovsky, accompanied by an Su-30MK2 acting as a chase plane .  During the 55-minute flight, the Su-35 reached a height of16,000 ft, and tests were carried out on its stability, controllability and engines.The Su-35S's estimated price was $40 million each. In November 2009, KnAAPO started manufacturing the first serial aircraft; Sukhoi estimated that 24 to 30 aircraft would be produced each year from 2010 to 2020. On 11 October 2010, the first production Su-35S had completed.It made its debut in 2014 in an airshow The fighters will be delivered at a rate of 10 aircraft per year starting in 2016.

First Crash :

On 26 April 2009, the fourth Su-35 prototype was destroyed at Dzemgi Airport during a taxi run. The aircraft crashed into a barrier at the end of the runway, burned, and was written off. The pilot, Yevgeny Frolov, ejected and was taken to hospital with burns and other injuries.The aircraft was expected to be the third flying prototype, with its first flight scheduled on 24 April, which was rescheduled for 27 April.A commission was opened to investigate the crash, but several sources initially speculated that the incident had been the result of a brake failure or a faulty fuel pump.

History :

There have been two different Sukhoi Su-35s in the aviation history; they even look different. The first jet fighter to get this designation in the early 1990s at international trade shows was an aircraft also known as Sukhoi Su-27M. 
The earlier Su-35 was a comprehensive upgrade of the basic Su-27. In fact, that was the first attempt to make a multi-role fighter out of the interceptor jet. 
Then the upgraded Su-27 was given new capabilities to control guided precision weapons. To enable this capability, a new airborne radar was installed on the jet. The weapons control system and the airframe were also modified, adding a canard wing. 
For a number of reasons, that jet did not go into production, and the manufacturer did not resurrect the Su-35 designation until 2005. The new Sukhoi Su-35 took off from the Ramensky Airfield of the Gromov Flight Research Institute in February 2008. 
The fighter jet was originally designated Sukhoi Su-35BM (the Russian index for “big modernization,” or “a major upgrade”), and was subsequently renamed as Su-35 for the export markets. After the Russian Air Force became interested in the new model, a Sukhoi Su-35S variant emerged, with the index S traditionally signifying a version designated for the Russian Defense Ministry. At that point the Thirty-Five became the “poster boy” for the Russian combat air force: the defense contract for 48 Sukhoi Su-35S fighters was the largest procurement deal for new combat aircraft. The Russian Defense Ministry is planning to sign another procurement deal for the aircraft next year. The Thirty-Five offers a feature set and performance making it very nearly a Fifth-Generation fighter jet. The Su-35S falls short on only two requirements: lack of stealth technology and APAR (active phased array radar). The Sukhoi Su-35S carries a 30mm cannon, has 12 hard points and can detect targets at more than 400 kilometers, while its radar can track up to 30 targets simultaneously. The fighter has range in excess of 3,500 kilometers without refueling. The world’s most powerful Fourth-Generation fighter’s standout features include new engines, avionics and radar. 


Engines ;

Use of high-thrust engines is a significant differentiator of Sukhoi Su-35 from predecessor Su-27 family jets. The new engines were developed by NPO Saturn, a UEC subsidiary, and are known under the 117S designation. 
The new engines are essentially a deep upgrade of production AL-31F engines, with fifth-generation technologies used in the upgrade. The upgrade has increased the engine’s thrust by 16% to 14,500 kgf with afterburners and to 8,800 kgf maximum dry thrust. The engine has a significantly improved expected life (by a factor of 2x – 2.7x) compared to the production AL-31F: from 500 to 1,000 hours between repairs (and to 1,500 hours running time before the first overhaul), with the total expected life increasing from 1,500 to 4,000 hours. 
Two engine manufacturers – the Ufa Engine Manufacturing Company (UMPO) and Rybinsk-based NPO Saturn – will manufacture 117S engines in cooperation with each other. The manufacturing partners, NPO Saturn and UMPO, have decided to share equally the scope of work to manufacture 117S engines. 

The avionics used in the new jet are a completely new system of onboard electronics. The entire complement of Sukhoi Su-35 electronics is integrated into a single system. Avionics and other equipment are integrated into a single cohesive system by an information processing and control system, which comprises two digital CPUs, interface and data conversion systems, and a head-up display (HUD) implementing the glass cockpit concept. The Su-35 has two MFI-35 large color multi-functional LCDs, a multi-functional panel with an integrated display processor, a wide-angle collimated head-up display superimposed over the windscreen and a control panel in the cockpit.These indicators and a range of other avionics systems of the aircraft were developed by the Ramenskoye Instrument Design Bureau, also a Concern Radioelectronic Technologies (KRET) subsidiary. KRET engineers also designed a new navigation system for the fighter jet – the BINS-SP-2 strap-down inertial navigation system. The navigation system can identify the aircraft’s location independently from satellite positioning and without communicating with ground-based systems, at accuracy levels double those offered by earlier versions. BINS-SP-2 has an expected operating life of 10,000 hours, nearly double that of currently available comparable navigation systems. Incidentally, this state-of-the-art navigation system, created from scratch by KRET subsidiaries, will be also used in the Fifth-Generation advanced front-line aircraft system. 


IRBIS Radar :

While lacking an APAR, the Su-35 radar system can detect targets at distances up to 400 kilometers, as well as tracking up to aerial targets and engage up to eight of these targets simultaneously. Sukhoi Su-35S has owes these capabilities to its new Irbis phased-array radar control system. The system was developed by Tikhomirov Instrument Engineering Research Institute, a KRET subsidiary, and is being manufactured by the Ryazan State Instrument Factory, another subsidiary of KRET. The state-of-the-art system enables Sukhoi Su-35S to detect quickly and track simultaneously up to four ground targets or up to 30 airborne targets, as well as engaging up to eight airborne targets at the same time. Besides, the radar control system has the friend-or-foe identification capability for aerial and maritime objects, is capable of identifying the class and type of airborne targets and take aerial photos of the ground. The system can be used in any weather at any time of the day, and remain effective in the face of interference, either natural or organized by the enemy electronic warfare systems. This puts the Sukhoi Su-35S radar system on par with the best state-of-the-art international designs, and ahead for most US and European active and passive phased array radars. 

Exports :

In 2006, China was showing interest in the modernized Su-35, and was negotiating with Moscow for a purchase of the fighter.On March 2013, it was reported that Russia and China  sides had signed an initial agreement for 24 fighters worth $2 billion, was signed. The first aircraft was delivered to China in 2016.

Airshows :

The Sukhoi 35 has participated in numerous airshows such as MAKS Airshow,Dubai Air show ,Berlin Airshow,Paris Airshow and Zuhai Airshow.

Versions :

Su-27M/Su-35 :Single-seat fighter.

Su-35UB :Two-seat trainer. Features taller vertical stabilizers and a forward fuselage similar to the Su-30.

Su-35BM :Single-seat fighter with upgraded avionics and various modifications to the airframe. Su-35BM is informal name.

Su-37 : Thrust-vectoring demonstrator.

Su-35S : Designation of production Su-35BM version for the Russian Air Force.

Weapons :
The Su-35 has twelve to fourteen weapons hardpoints, giving it an excellent loadout.At Long Range the Su-35 can use K-77M radar-guided missiles which are claimed to have range about 120 miles.For shorter-range engagements R-74 infrared-guided missile. The pilot can target an enemy plane up 60° away from where his plane is pointed. Additionally, a Su-35 is armed with a thirty-millimeter cannon with 150 rounds for strafing or dogfighting.  

Thursday, 9 March 2017

F22 Raptor

                                   F-22 RAPTOR

Introduction :

Lock Head Martin F-22 Raptor is a 5th Generation single-seat, twin-engine , all-weather stealth tactical fighter  Currently In Use By American Air Force🇺🇸. 

    ⭕Role : Stealth  Fighter
    ⭕Origin : USA
    ⭕Manufacturer :Lockheed Martin Aeronautics 
    ⭕Introduction : 15 Dec 2005
    ⭕Produced : Completely In USA
    ⭕Quantity : 187
    ⭕Unit cost : US$150 million 

The F-22 Raptor Specifications :

      ⚫ Crew : 1
      ⚫Length : 19m
      ⚫Wind span : 13.5m
      ⚫ Height : 5.08m
      ⚫ Wing Area : 78m²
      ⚫Empty Weight :19,700kg
      ⚫Max Take Off Weight :38,000kg
      ⚫Internal Fuel Capacity :8,200kg
       ⚫  Max Speed :2,410 km/h
       ⚫ Combat Radius :850 km
       ⚫ Range : 2,900km

Operators :

The operator of Lock Head Martin F-22 Raptor is only United States Air Force 🇺🇸. 

History :

In 1981, the Cold War consumed the attention of much of the American intelligence community.
Reports on the Soviet SU-27 Flanker and the MiG-29 Fulcrum convinced the USAF that the current generation of fighter jets, the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Fighting Falcon, would not be able to keep up with the emerging technologies of the Soviets.
In 1986, Requests For Proposals were issued, and the team of Lockheed Martin/Boeing/General Dynamics was selected to complete the next generation of fighter jets.
In 1991, two prototypes were delivered. The YF-22 was chosen to be the next generation of the fighter plane for the United States. After a few changes, the jet’s official designation became F-22.
Acquiring adequate funding was an early problem for the F-22. To obtain sufficient congressional support, contractors in 46 states were ultimately used to produce the plane’s various parts and pieces. Later on, this led to cost increases and manufacturing delays.
Lockheed Martin had also decided to defer many of the aircraft’s initial capabilities into post-production upgrades. This made for a lower initial cost of the F-22 but dramatically increased the final production cost. Similar issues arose in the 2000s during the controversial creation of the F-35.
Also increasing the per-unit cost of the F-22 was its cutting-edge stealth technology and other high-tech features. With many American jets, the cost of manufacturing and developing new aircraft is deferred by assisting other countries to build their fleets.
Due to espionage concerns, the F-22 was banned from exports.

Development : 

Total number of 195 F22 Raptors Are made till now. However 187 are for military use and 7 were made for testing. US is currently not producing any more F-22 Raptors. 

Production :

In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter ATF as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.Lock Head Martin Aeronautics was signed the contract. The first F-22, an EMD aircraft named Raptor 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia, on 9 April 1997, and first flew on 7 September 1997.The USAF originally envisioned ordering 750 ATFs at a cost of $26.2 billion, with production beginning in 1994. The 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney reduced this to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. By 1997, funding instability had further cut the total to 339, which was again reduced to 277 F-22s by 2003. In 2004, the Department of Defense  further reduced this to 183 operational aircraft. 
That year the program's total cost was projected to be $62 billion for 183 F-22s distributed to seven combat squadron. 


The F-22 program lost influential supporters in 2008 after the forced resignations of Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force General T. Michael Moseley.In April 2009, under the new Obama Administration, he called for ending F-22 production in fiscal year (FY) 2011, leaving the USAF with 187 production aircraft including 8 testing jets(Total 195).

Variants :-

YF-22A : pre-production technology demonstrator for ATF demonstration. Only 2 of them were built. 
F-22A : a single seat production version, was designed in early 2000s 
F-22B : a planned two seat variant but canceled in 1996 to save development costs. 
Naval F-22 Variant : a carrier-borne variant of F-22 for use in U. S navy to replace Tomcat but was canceled in 1993. 

Exports :

The F-22 could not be exported under American federal law to protect its features . Customers for U.S fighters were acquiring earlier designs such as F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcons or the newer F-35 Lightning II. In September 2006, Congress upheld the ban on foreign F-22 salesAustralia, Japan and Israel showed interest in buying F-22 but in 2009 it was reported that acquiring the F-22 would require increases to the defense budget beyond 1 percent of GDP.So F-35 was bought by these countries instead of F-22. 

Airshow :

The F22 Raptor Has not taken part in any air show except one in 2015.

Stealth :

It’s the most stealthy operational aircraft in the entire world, with a RCS of less than 0.0001 square meter - less than that of a humming bird. (Although it’s exact RCS is classified)

Avionics :

There have been reports of USAF pilots unable to get a radar lock on F-22 despite being able to see it outside the canopy.
The F-22’s radar (APG-77) is specially designed to maintain it’s stealth characteristics. It is extremely difficult to intercept. What does it mean?
You will never know when a F-22 is watching you on his radar, has a lock & fired a missile–until the missile hits you.
The F-22 also has the most powerful Passive Radar  (ALR-94) on an aircraft. It consists of over 30 antennas blended over the entire fuselage. To give a comparison, the F-35 has 10, Rafale - 3 & Eurofighter Typhoon - 2.
In certain cases, F-22’s passive radar can provide almost complete guidance to AIM-120D (BVR missile) to reach it’s target (without using it’s active radar at all!)

Performance :

It is the first operational aircraft to combine supercruise, supermaneuverability, stealth, and sensor fusion in a single weapons platform.
It can fly at Mach 1.8 – without using any afterburners! 
A single Raptor during one of its first training sorties was able to kill 8 F-15s in a mock air-to-air engagement, all alone.

During exercise Noble Edge in Alaska in June 2006, few F-22s were able to down 108 adversaries with no losses, while during the 2007 edition of the same exercise, they brought their record to 144 simulated kills.

As reported by Dave Allport and Jon Lake in a story which appeared on Air Force Monthly magazine, during an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI) in 2008, the F-22s scored 221 simulated kills without a single loss.

The Saying :

There’s a saying, “when F-22’s in combat, it’s not about whether you win or not – it’s about how long you can survive.”

Tuesday, 7 March 2017


                 JF-17 THUNDER



⭕UNIT COST: US$ 25 MILLON For Block 1,28 MILLION For     Block 2,and 32 MILLION For Block 3.


⚫Length: 14.93 m
⚫Wingspan  9.45 m
⚫Height: 4.72 m
⚫Wing area: 24.4 m²m²o
⚫Empty Weight : 6,586 kg
⚫Max Takeoff Weight: 12,500 kg
⚫Internal Fuel Capacity : 2,350 kg
⚫MAX Speed: 1,960.1 km/h
⚫Combat Radius: 1,352 km
⚫Crew :1(GONNA BE 2 IN JF-17B)

CURRENTLY The operator of this jet is Pakistan Air Force. Myanmar Air Force and Nigerian Air Force has placed the order of JF-17(s).




Production :     On 2 March 2007,JF-17  flew for the first time and took part in a public aerial demonstration during a Pakistan 🇵🇰 Day parade on 23 March 2007. The PAF intended to induct 200 JF-17 by 2015 to replace all its Chengdu F-7, Nanchang A-5, and Dassault Mirage III/5 aircraft. In preparation for the IN-FLIGHT Refueling of JF-17s, the PAF has upgraded several Mirage IIIs with IFR probes for training purposes.A dual-seat, combat-capable trainer was originally scheduled to begin flight testing in 2006,In 2009 Pakistan reportedly decided to develop the training model into a specialised attack variant.
In November 2007, the PAF and PAC conducted flight evaluations of aircraft fitted with a variant of the NRIET KLJ-10 radar developed by China's Nanjing Research Institute for Electronic Technology (NRIET), and the LETRI SD-10 Active radar homing AAM.In 2005, PAC began manufacturing JF-17 components; production of sub-assemblies commenced on 22 January 2008. 


Special Block B :
      The Pakistan Air Force plans to induct a twin-seater version for both enhanced operational capability and training, known as the JF-17 by 2017. Preparations for a more advanced and technologically sophisticated block III version of the aircraft is underway and the AESA radar has been developed, the KLJ-7A which can track 15 targets and engage 4 targets simultaneously.


Operation Zarb-e-Azb :

Since its induction in 2011, the JF-17 thunder has accumulated 19,000 hours of operational flight.The JF-17 has seen active military service as it is used by the Pakistan Air Force to bomb militant positions in the Operation Zarb-e-Azb,using both unguided munitions and guided missiles for precision strike capability.



JF-17 Block IIProduction began on 18 December 2013 and initial testing began on 9 February 2015. These aircraft have air-to-air refuelling capability, improved avionics, enhanced load carrying capacity, data link, and electronic warfare capabilities. The construction will continue until 2016, after which the manufacture of Block 3 is planned.A Block 2 JF-17 costs approximately US$25 million per unit.Manufacturing plant has the capacity to produce 25 units in a year. According to local media, PAC rolled out the 16th Block 2 aircraft in December 2015 enabling the 4th JF17 squadron to be stood up.

JF-17 Block III Projected to feature further avionics advancements such as helmet-mounted display and sight system, a new single panel multi-functional display , an active electronically-scanned array radar paired with an infrared search and track system, and a cockpit with a flight-control stick on the side an NRIET KLJ-7A AESA radar,more use of composites,Twin engine, and a two-seater cockpit option WITH MORE HIGH SPEED. PAKISTAN AIR FORCE officials have described it as a "fourth generation plus" fighter jet. According to unconfirmed media reports the induction is expected to start around 2019.As of September 2016, the design of the JF-17 Block III has been finalized.It Is now under development and will be in air by 2019.

JF-17B: JF-17B is a twin-seater variant scheduled to be inducted into the Pakistan Air Force by 2017. It will have more speed.  Its multi-roles include use for training and enhanced surveillance and support capabilities. According to media reports, the production of the first prototype has started. YIPEE


At Paris Air Show :

JF-17 Thunder performance in Paris Air Show impressed the audience alot. Meanwhile Nigeria and Myanmar Air Force placed the orders of JF-17(s). Air Commodore and Pakistan Air Force officer dealing in sales and marketing, Khalid Mahmood said “A contract has been signed with an Asian country.” However the name of the country was not disclosed and deliveries are likely to begin in 2017.The report added that 80 people were promoting the JF-17 in Paris this year, reflecting a significant marketing push.

Weapons :

The JF-17 can be armed with up to 3,629 kg , and other equipment mounted externally on the aircraft's seven hardpoints.One hardpoint is located under the fuselage between the main landing gear, two are underneath each wing, and one is at each wing-tip. All seven hardpoints communicate via a MIL-STD-1760 data-bus architecture with the Stores Management System,which is stated to be capable of integration with weaponry of any origin.Internal armament comprises one 23 mm GSh-23-2 twin-barrel cannon mounted under the port side air intake, which can be replaced with a 30 mm GSh-30-2 twin-barrel cannon.The wing-tip hardpoints are typically occupied by short range infra-red homing AAMs. Many combinations of ordnance and equipment such as targeting pods can be carried on the under-wing and under-fuselage hardpoints. Underwing hardpoints can be fitted with multiple ejector rods allowing each hardpoint to carry two 230 kg unguided bombs or LGBs—Mk. 82. It is unknown whether multiple ejector racks can be used for ordnance such as beyond visual range AAMS. Active radar homing BVR AAMs can be integrated with the radar and data-link for mid-course updates. Short range, infra-red homing missiles include the Chinese CPL-5E and CPL-9CPL, and the AIM-9L. The PAF is also seeking to arm the JF-17 with a fifth generation close-combat missile such as the PL10E IRIS-T or A-darter. These will be integrated with the HMS/D and the radar for targeting.
Unguided air-to-ground weaponry includes rocket pods, gravity bombs and Matra Gurandal anti-runway munitions.Precision-Guided missiles such as LGBs satellite guided missiles  are also compatible with the JF-17, as are other guided weapons such anti ship, Anti Radiation Missiles.  Pakistan planned to bring the Brazilian MAR-1 anti-radiation missile into service on its JF-17 fleet in 2014.